Chemoprotective effects of dietary bioactives - involvement of microbiota-host crosstalk
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Dr. Robert Chapkin, PhD
Texas A&M University
Dr. Robert S. Chapkin is a member of the Program in Integrative Nutrition & Complex Diseases and the National Insitututes of Environmental Health Scienes (NIEHS) Center for Translational Environmental Health Research at Texas A&M University. He received his BSc in Nutrition and Biochemistry from the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada; an MSc in Nutrition from the University of Guelph, 1983, and a PhD in Nutrition and Physiological Chemistry from the University of California-Davis in 1986. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship in Cancer Biology in the School of Medicine at the University of California-Davis in 1988, he joined the faculty at Texas A&M University. Dr. Chapkin is currently a Distinguished Professor, Regents Professor and University Faculty Fellow and during the past 28 years has published over 220 peer-reviewed articles in nutrition, membrane biology, cancer biology, non-invasive biomarkers and immunology. He holds appointments in the Departments of Nutrition & Food Science, Biochemistry & Biophysics, Veterinary Integrated Biosciences, and Microbial Pathogenesis & Immunology. He was recently awarded a National Cancer Institute (NCI) R35 Outstanding Investigator Award (2016-2023) to extend novel cancer prevention strategies to delineate the nuclear and plasma membrane targeted mechanisms modulating stem cell responses to exogenous (diet-derived) and endogenous (gut microbial) bioactive agents.
Various environmental factors contribute to the development of cancer. For example, the role of diet in promoting and preventing colorectal cancer can be context-dependent, beneficial in one situation while detrimental in another context. Thus, a varied armamentarium of bioactive dietary compounds have been explored for their potential to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Utilizing fish oil (containing n-3 PUFA), curcumin, and fermentable fiber as examples, this talk will highlight some of the putative mechanisms by which dietary bioactives can reduce colorectal cancer risk, from the cell membrane to the regulation of gene expression. The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a diverse population of microbiota. A range of gut microbial structural components and metabolites directly interact with host intestinal cells and stroma to influence nutrient uptake and epithelial resilience. For example, we have demonstrated that combinations of n-3 PUFA, curcumin and butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid produced during anaerobic fermentation of dietary fiber by endogenous bacteria in the colon, interact to profoundly suppress colon cancer. In addition, our findings demonstrate for the first time that rapidly cycling intestinal stem cells are exquisitely sensitive to dietary factors that modulate colon cancer risk.
***Original Source: "2017 Thematic Conference", Saturday, January 14, 2017
Last Updated: February 2, 2017
|Chemoprotective effects of dietary bioactives - involvement of microbiota-host crosstalk