CNS 2019: Reviewing the evidence about micronutrient and prevention of cognitive decline

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Speakers: Benjamin Allès, PhD; Nancy Presse; and Anne-Julie Tessier, PhD candidate, RD

This session aims to outline where we stand now about the evidences regarding a link between micronutrients intake and prevention of cognitive decline. We want to focus this session on the knowledge generated in animal and clinical trials and contrast this information with prospective studies. The different micro-nutrients that will be presented are omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, B and D. This session will also discuss briefly about multo-domain intervention in the prevention of cognitive decline as to whether it is necessary to include different domain of action to have better chances to prevent cognitive decline.The kearning objecties of this session will be 1. To get an upadate about different micronutrient intake and cognition and prevention of its decline during aging. 2. To understand the different evidences obtained in animal models, vs clinical trials vs prospective studies.

Benjamin Allès: Associations between diet and cognitive functions: results from observational studies based on the SU.VI.MAX and Nutrinet-Santé cohorts

As Alzheimer's Disease has become a major burden in aging societies and no efficient treatment is yet available. Thereby, research has been focusing on preventable and modifiable risks factors such as nutrition. To date, no dietary intervention among those used in clinical trials has been identified to delay cognitive decline. However, in observational studies, diets such as Mediterranean diet or the MIND-diet have been reported associated with better cognitive functions. The SU.VI.MAX and Nutrinet-Santé cohort studies allowed to collect data about both dietary habits and cognitive function in French adults. Observational studies based on these cohorts were conducted to assess the relationship between specific nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or dietary patterns and cognitition. They confirmed that individuals adhering to French nutritional guidelines or a priori determined diet such the MIND diet were more likely to have better cognitive functions.

Further longitudinal studies, especially those studying the relationship between specific DP and cognitive function are still required to confirm the preventive role of nutrition in cognitive decline and AD.

Nancy Presse: Challenges in investigating the role of micronutrients in cognitive decline: Food for thought!

Extensive research efforts have been made to determine whether micronutrients, through diet or supplementation, can play a role in prevention of cognitive decline in aging. To date, virtually all vitamins have been studied at some point. Despite the effort, results have been inconsistent and most trials showed little to no benefit of micronutrients in preventing cognitive decline or even mild cognitive impairment or dementia. So the question is: Is it the micronutrients that are not significant factors in cognitive decline or is it us researchers who are overlooking something? For most, there is no doubt that micronutrients are important so what is wrong with our research? This presentation will summarize the main challenges when studying micronutrients in cognitive decline. Examples where researchers are thinking outside of the box will be provided including considerations for the interactions between nutrients and the use of pharmaco-epidemiology approaches.

Anne-Julie Tessier: Dairy product intake frequency is associated with cognitive executive function in older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

Dairy products (DP) provide essential nutrients, i.e., vitamins B12, D, calcium and include bioactive peptides and fermented products, which may be beneficial for cognition. Yet, few studies of large contemporary cohorts have investigated this relationship using sensitive domain-specific cognitive tests. The study objective was to examine the association between total DP intake frequency and performance of 3 cognitive domains in community-dwelling older Canadians. Analyses were conducted on 7,945 adults (age 65-86 y) of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) cohort baseline data. Usual DP (cheese, milk, yogurt and regular vs low-fat) intake frequencies were assessed using the validated Short Diet Questionnaire and cognitive function using 7 cognitive tests. Mean (±SD) DP intake frequency was 1.9 ± 1.1 times/d and was positively associated with executive function tests from MANCOVA analyses. The association was independent of the strongest determinants, age, sex and education (fully-adjusted model: F (12, 15800) = 2.55; p<0.05). Among executive function tests, univariate analyses revealed significance for the F-A-S word naming score, specifically. Participants with a DP intake > 2.5 times/d had a higher score than those with intakes ≤1.1 times/d (adj. mean difference= -1.2, 95%CI: -2.3, -0.02; p=0.045) and between 1.2-1.7 times/d (adj. mean difference= -1.4, 95%CI: -2.6, -0.2; p=0.012). No associations were found with memory and psychomotor speed. This study shows an independent link between DP intake and cognitive function and suggests a specific role for DP components in executive function phonemic verbal fluency. Investigation of follow-up data will be needed to confirm associations longitudinally.

** Original Source: "CNS 2019 Annual Conference" Friday, May 3, 2019

Length: 1:19:25

Type: Video

Last Updated: June 18, 2019

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