Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Health and Disease
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Advances in the determination of protein and amino acid requirements were hampered by the use of nitrogen balance as the method used to define requirement. Initially, direct oxidation models were used but have proven to have significant limitations. The application of indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) techniques have allowed important further progress in determining amino acid requirements across the life cycle and in health and disease. More recently, the IAAO technique has been applied to the determination of protein requirement across the life-cycle.
Studies of protein and amino acid requirement involve using amino acid based diets. In order to fully apply the results to the diet the availability of amino acids from dietary protein sources need to be determined. In order to do this a novel technique was developed in pigs by Dr Ball's laboratory in Edmonton and applied in humans in Toronto, in the laboratory of Dr Pencharz. This technique is called Metabolic Availability.
The remaining gaps include confirming the 30 to 50% increased estimates for protein requirements in adults and children respectively by longer term studies conducted over months rather the current isotope studies conducted over days. Other gaps include defining the effects of meal feedings.
Paul Pencharz MB, ChB, PhD, FRCPC
Professor of Paediatrics and Nutritional Sciences (Emeritus)
University of Toronto,
Senior Scientist Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
*** Original Source: CNS Regional Conference - Advances in Protein Nutrition Across the Lifespan - January 10, 2015
Last Updated: February 27, 2015